Microeconomics seems to be an exercise in resource allocation, which at a minimal level can be solved by some linear programming calculations (in principle).

Though the big problem is that attempting to do linear programming calculations, is that it generally scales exponentially with the number of variables. So it's basically a waste of time trying to do the calculation if the number of variables is large.

In the case of libertarian style economic theories, it seems like the belief is that the "free market" can solve this mathmatical resource allocation problem completely and definitively.

On the other side of the coin in communist/marxist style economic theories, it appears they simply ignore (or outright disbelieve) this exponential scaling issue in mathematical resource allocation. Every time I asked a hardcore marxist (offline) about this particular issue, most have a blank stare on their faces and have no idea what I'm asking about. The few hardcore marxists/communists who have a mathematics background to whom I asked about this issue, their response was that they believed that P=NP is true and that this exponential scaling is a non issue.

P versus NP problem - Wikipedia